Christopher McCorkindale and Aileen McHarg: Continuity and Confusion: Legislating for Brexit in Scotland and Wales (Part I)

UK Constitutional Law Association

Editors’ note: This is the first of a two-part post on the UK Withdrawal from the European Union (Legal Continuity) (Scotland) Bill, introduced into the Scottish Parliament on 27 February 2018, and the Law Derived from the European Union (Wales) Bill.


On 27 February, the Scottish Government introduced the UK Withdrawal from the European Union (Legal Continuity) (Scotland) Bill (the Scottish Continuity Bill) into the Scottish Parliament. A similar Bill – the Law Derived from the European Union (Wales) Bill (the Welsh Continuity Bill) – has been presented by the Welsh Government to the LLywydd (the Welsh Assembly Presiding Officer), although at the time of writing, it has not yet been published. These Bills are intended to be alternatives to the application of the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill’s (the Withdrawal Bill) provisions on continuity of EU law and ministerial powers to adjust the statute book in the light of…

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The Saints – Orstralia

Seven fallacies concerning Milton Friedman’s ”The Role of Monetary Policy”

Mostly Economics

Edward Nelson says there are 7 common fallacies around Friedman’s paper – The Role of Monetary Policy – which celebrated 50 years recently.

This paper analyzes Milton Friedman’s (1968) article “The Role of Monetary Policy,” via a discussion of seven fallacies concerning the article. These fallacies are:

(1) “The Role of Monetary Policy” was Friedman’s first public statement of the natural rate hypothesis.
(2) The Friedman-Phelps Phillips curve was already presented in Samuelson and Solow’s (1960) analysis.
(3) Friedman’s specification of the Phillips curve was based on perfect competition and no nominal rigidities.
(4) Friedman’s (1968) account of monetary policy in the Great Depression contradicted the Monetary History’s version.
(5) Friedman (1968) stated that a monetary expansion will keep the unemployment rate and the real interest rate below their natural rates for two decades.
(6) The zero lower bound on nominal interest rates invalidates the natural rate hypothesis.
(7) Friedman’s (1968) treatment of an…

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A randomised experiment to test for gender discrimination

1. Booth and Leigh found a pro-female bias in callbacks only in occupations in which the percentage of females is 80 percent or more. For less female-dominated occupations, we find no significant bias towards either sex, in contrast to Riach and Rich (2006). In a London-based field experiment, Riach and Rich (2006) found statistically significant discrimination against men in ‘mixed’ occupations (trainee accountants, 31 percent female; and computer analyst/programmers, 21 percent female) and in ‘female’ occupations (secretarial, 97 percent female).

2. For waitstaff and data-entry positions, gender differences in callback rates were very large, while for customer service and sales positions they were much smaller. For example, a male wishing to work as a waiter would have to submit 31 percent more applications to receive the same number of callbacks, while a male seeking work as a data-entry employee would have to submit 74 percent more applications. By contrast, the ratio of female callbacks to male callbacks is just 1.10 for customer service, and 1.04 for sales.

3. Neumark et. al. and Weichselbaumer (2004) consider the possibility that personality traits, rather than discrimination, might be the explanation for differential treatment.

I think they are onto something here about personality traits. Women have systematically better average scores on conscientiousness, extraversion and reading skills. In consequence, in occupations where these traits are valued and contribute to the bottom line, employers that call back more women survive in competition longer than those not.

Remember, Pager, Devah. 2016. “Are Firms that Discriminate More Likely to Go Out of Business?” Sociological Science (September):849-859. found that discriminating firms were twice as likely to have failed six years later.

Andrew Leigh's Archived Blog 2004-2010

Alison Booth and I have a new paper out, in which we test for gender discrimination in hiring by randomly sending fake CVs to apply for jobs in female-dominated occupations (waitstaff, data-entry, customer service, and sales). These occupations are about 70-80% female.

We find a modest bias in favour of female applicants. Resumes with a female name get a callback 32% of the time, while those with a male name get a callback 25% of the time.

The paper is forthcoming in Economics Letters, so it’s very short. Here’s the abstract. To get the full paper, just click on the title.

Do Employers Discriminate by Gender? A Field Experiment in Female-Dominated Occupations
Alison Booth & Andrew Leigh
We test for gender discrimination by sending fake CVs to apply for entry-level jobs. Female candidates are more likely to receive a callback, with the difference being largest in occupations that are…

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How America Trains Its Officers to Respond to School Shootings

Why Women Prefer Male Bosses

How “Organic” is a Marketing Concept

The Risk-Monger

See the French translation

For almost two decades, the Risk-Monger and others have held the belief that scientific facts, data and evidence were sufficient for rational decision-making. In the case of the rise in public demand for organic food, he was foolishly wrong and quite tragically Stupid. Facts don’t matter in our decision-making process (although we all agree they should), emotions do. And when we come to emotions, we are in the domain of marketing, not scientific facts.

Using scientific data to address the emotional messages crafted by the marketing geniuses from the organic lobby is like bringing a knife to a gun-fight. The organic lobby has slaughtered science and common sense on agri-tech with their marketing machine, expensive campaigns and networks of special interests filling the well-funded troughs with their brands, referral fees and sponsorship deals.

Definition note. I use the term: “organic industry lobby” to include…

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How to use a child

The Risk-Monger

See the French translation

This blog was originally published on 15 July 2013 and is part of my sporadic archive updates from the closed site. In the five years since writing this, children seem to have taken an even greater role in activist lobbying. Wayne Parent recruited his daughter, Rachel, to increase public fear on agritech (and thus sales for his Nutrition House empire), Malala won the Nobel Prize (as I had predicted) and almost every NGO has a poster-child promoting their doom and gloom campaigns (apparently our wasteful ways are destroying their future so someone has to give them a microphone).

12687820_457688507767554_310499262637220155_nNow who would I be to disagree or speak out? A Risk-Monger no doubt, and one of the worst at that! Look in the comment section at how the pro-organic supporters cheered Only Organic’s New MacDonald abuse of the innocent. But when the manipulators at Stonyfield Organic launched their…

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Finest Hour

A Blog on Winston Churchill

The theme of the Winter 2018 (No. 179) issue of the Finest Hour: The Journal of Winston Churchill and His Times is “Churchill at the Movies.” Articles include the leading portrayals of Churchill in films in the article “Churchill on Screen: The Five Best” by Michael F. Bishop; “Love, Self-Sacrifice, and Whomping Bad Guys: Winston Churchill’s Favorite Films” by Robert James; and “Let it Roll: Churchill’s Chartwell Cinema” by Justin Reach. Churchill’s piece on Hollywood, originally published in the Daily Telegraph in 1929 is reprinted. Also of interest is Ronald I. Cohen’s column which examines the publishing history of My Early Life, Churchill’s account of his life until he entered parliament in 1901. The website of the Finest Hour is here.

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Free speech survey: Leftists are generally more tolerant than conservatives

Why Evolution Is True

Justin Murphy is a political scientist who’s a lecturer  in “governance and policy” at the University of Southampton.  On his website he writes about politics and social phenomena from a left-wing viewpoint. His latest post, “Who’s afraid of free speech in the United States?” has some surprises for those of us—including me—who feel that the Left is especially censorious compared to the Right. His data, compiled from the U.S. General Social Survey, shows that that’s not quite right.

Murphy analyzed data reported over 45 years on American’s on political self-identification as well as willingness to censor those espousing a given view. Here are the questions people were asked about censorship:

For most of its surveys between 1972 and 2016, the General Social Survey asked a U.S. sample to consider the following types of potential public speakers. (They asked about a few others but the following are the…

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